Microbiology Theory

Media Use


Convenient dehydrated culture media of the highest quality are supplied for the growth of a wide range of heterotrophic organisms. For organisms with more diverse nutritional requirements, Fluka offers a large selection of media ingredients ranging from simple sugars to pH and redox indicators. A selection of commonly used dyes and additives is also included.

Other components, e.g. water soluble salts of trace elements, vitamins, antibiotics amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, chemical agents to induce mutation and inhibitors, etc., can be found in the Fluka catalogue on Chemika-Biochemica.

The Dehydrated Culture Media range is continuously being expanded. Please contact us for further information.


Environmental Analysis

In the field of environmental microbiology most cultures have to be isolated and enriched from their natural habitats. With this in mind, Fluka supplies a range of media additives necessary for specialized media. For the detection and enumeration of microorganisms in complex natural systems such as soil, Fluka offers a range of fluorescent dyes.


Soil Analysis

11703 Bacillus Medium 70148 Nutrient Agar
70133 Blood Agar (Base) 70116 Nutrient Agar No 2
22310 Cereus Selective Agar 70122 Nutrient Broth No 1
27548 Clostridium Agar 70123 Nutrient Broth No 2
60865 Cooked Meat Broth 70149 Nutrient Broth No 3
70185 Czapek Dox Agar 70151 Nutrient Gelatin
48726 Gelatine Phosphate Buffer 77412 PGYT Broth
60788 King Agar A 82618 PYR Broth
60786 King Agar B 83331 PYS Broth
61348 Lactose Gelatin Broth 88199 TG Broth
14305 Motility Nitrate Agar 93745 TSC Agar
72548 Nitrate Broth 70196 Wort Agar

Water Analysis

00185 Acetamide Nutrient Broth 44657 ECD MUG Agar
70132 Azide Blood Agar (Base) 70137 ENDO Agar (Base)
11539 Azide Glucose Broth 45183 Enterococcus Selective Agar
48300 Bile Esculin Agar 70187 Glucose Broth
70133 Blood Agar (Base) 50875 GSP Agar
16016 BRILA MUG Broth 60641 KF-Streptococcus Agar
16750 Bromocresol Purple Azide Broth 60786 King Agar B
22470 Cetrimide Agar 70142 Lactose Broth
70135 DCLS Agar 61749 Lauryl sulfate Broth
31432 DEV ENDO Agar 70143 Mac Conkey Agar No 1
31433 DEV Gelatin Agar 70144 Mac Conkey Broth
31434 DEV Glucose Broth 63014 Mac Conkey MUG Agar
31435 DEV Glutamate Broth 63163 Malachite Green Broth
31436 DEV Lactose Broth 70148 Nutrient Agar
31437 DEV Lactose Peptone Broth 70116 Nutrient AgarNo2
31401 DEV Lactose Peptone MUG Broth 70152 Plate Count Agar
31438 DEV Nutrient Agar 80961 Plate Count MUG Agar
31439 DEV Nutrient Gelatin 85463 Simmons Citrate Agar
31406 DEV Tryptophan Broth 86348 TCBS Agar
44653 EC Broth 70159 Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar

Food and water contaminated by microorganisms (bacteria and yeasts), viruses and protozoa can cause severe disease in humans, especially in people weakened by illness or during convalescence, malnutrition, etc.

There are two categories of foodborne diseases. First, food poisoning is caused by the presence of microbial toxins in food products, e.g. by Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens (both produce enterotoxins which elicit enteric disease such as. diarrhoea) and Clostridium botulinum (botulism the most severe type of food poisoning).

Second, food infection is caused by the growth of microorganisms in the body after eating contaminated food, e.g. by Salmonella spp. (salmomonellosis) and Campylobacter jejuni (high fever, abdominal cramps). Many human pathogens are transmitted by fecally contaminated water, the most important are Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever) and Vibrio cholerae (cholera). Microbiological test procedures for the examination of food and water have been standardized and regulated, but nearly every country has its own regulations, the "Schweizerisches Lebensmittelhandbuch" being a case in point. All the necessary culture media, their additives, dyes and indicators which Fluka offers conform to Swiss regulations.


  Drinking Water, Mineral- and
Table Water
 
  95388 Bismuth Sulfide Agar   70152 Plate Count Agar
  70134 Brilliant Green Agar (modified)   70153 Selenite Broth (Base)
  16025 Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth   85463 Simmons Citrate Agar
  22470 Cetrimide Agar   85640 SS-Agar
  70135 DCLS Agar   88151 Tetrathionate Broth
  70137 ENDO Agar (Base)   70156 TetrathionateBroth(Base)
  47706 Formate Ricinoleate Broth   44940 Triple Sugar Iron Agar
  70143 MacConkey Agar No 1   22092 Tryptic Soy Broth
  63163 Malachite Green Broth   70159 TryptoneGlucoseExtractAgar
  69150 Methyl Red Voges Proskauer Broth   70194 Tryptone water
  70149 Nutrient Broth No 3   51463 Urea Broth
  77185 Peptone Water   70188 Violet Red Bile Agar
  78052 Phenylalanine Agar      
 

  Beer and Wine
 
  10825 APT Agar   70152 Plate Count Agar
  30912 DeMan-Rogosa-Sharpe Agar   83410 Raka Ray No3 Broth
  70143 Mac Conkey Agar No 1   70196 Wort Agar
  69964 MRS Agar      
 
           
  Fruits and Vegetables
 
  11705 Baird Parker Agar   70152 Plate Count Agar
  16025 Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth   70159 Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar
  61749 Lauryl sulfate Broth      
  11705 Baird Parker Agar   70152 Plate Count Agar
  44653 EC Broth   70139 Potato Glucose Agar
  61749 Lauryl sulfate Broth   70159 Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar
  70145 Malt Extract Agar   70188 Violet Red Bile Agar
 
           
  Sour Vegetables, Vinegar
 
  10825 APT Agar   69965 Mossel Broth
  11539 Azide Glucose Broth   70148 Nutrient Agar
  11853 Barnes Agar   70116 Nutrient Agar No 2
  16025 Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth   70139 Potato Glucose Agar
  27544 Clostridial Differential Broth   83920 Rogosa Agar
  27546 Clostridial Nutrient Medium   84086 Sabouraud 2% Glucose Agar
  61724 Liver Broth   70188 Violet Red Bile Agar
  70145 Malt Extract Agar   96005 ZATK Agar
 
           
  Corn and Corn Products
 
  11539 Azide Glucose Broth   70152 Plate Count Agar
  11705 Baird Parker Agar   70139 Potato Glucose Agar
  95388 Bismuth sulfite Agar   82618 PYR Broth
  53286 Brain Heart Broth   83331 PYS Broth
  16025 Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth   84922 Selenite Cystine Broth
  16026 Brilliant Green Phenol Red Lactose Sucrose Agar   85463 Simmons Citrate Agar
  27546 Clostridial Nutrient Medium   85640 SS-Agar
  44653 EC Broth   70156 Tetrathionate Broth (Base)
  70141 Koser Citrate Broth   88148 Tetrathionate Enrichment Broth
according to Muller-Kauffmann
  61348 Lactose Gelatin Broth   44940 Triple Sugar Iron Agar
  61749 Lauryl sulfate Broth   93745 TSC Agar
  62087 Levine EMB Agar   51463 Urea Broth
  62915 Lysine Iron Agar   70188 Violet Red Bile Agar
  70143 MacConkey Agar No l   70195 Vogel-Johnson Agar
  14305 Motility Nitrate Agar      
 
           
  Sugar
 
  31415 Dextrose Caseinpeptone Agar   70152 Plate Count Agar
  61724 Liver Broth   70139 Potato Glucose Agar
  70148 Nutrient Agar   84086 Sabouraud 2% Glucose Agar
  70116 Nutrient Agar No 2   70196 Wort Agar
  75405 Orange-serum Agar      
 
           
  Cocoa, Chocolate and Sweets
 
  11539 Azide Glucose Broth   62895 Lysine Decarboxylase Salt Broth
  11705 Baird Parker Agar   62915 Lysine Iron Agar
  48300 Bile Esculin Agar   70143 Mac Conkey Agar No 1
  95388 Bismuth sulfite Agar   69150 Methyl Red Voges Proskauer Broth
  53286 Brain Heart Broth   72548 Nitrate Broth
  16025 Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth   70151 Nutrient Gelatin
  16026 Brilliant Green Phenol Red Lactose
Sucrose Agar
  70152 Plate Count Agar
  44653 EC Broth   70139 Potato Glucose Agar
  51490 Hektoen Enteric Agar   84922 Selenite Cystine Broth
  60641 KF-Streptococcus Agar   85640 SS-Agar
  60787 Kligler Agar   44940 Triple Sugar Iron Agar
  70141 Koser Citrate Broth   70194 Tryptone water
  61348 Lactose Gelatin Broth   93745 TSC Agar
  61749 Lauryl sulfate Broth   51463 Urea Broth
  62087 Levine EMB Agar   70189 Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar
  95586 XLD Agar      
 
           
  Spices
 
  11705 Baird Parker Agar   69150 Methyl Red Voges Proskauer Broth
  48300 Bile Esculin Agar   14305 Motility Nitrate Agar
  95388 Bismuth sulfite Agar   70152 Plate Count Agar
  53286 Brain Heart Broth   82618 PYR Broth
  16025 Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth   83331 PYS Broth
  22520 China Blue Lactose Agar   83920 Rogosa Agar
  70185 Czapek Dox Agar   85640 SS-Agar
  44653 EC Broth   88148 Tetrathionate Enrichment Broth
according to Muller-Kauffmann
  60641 KF-Streptococcus Agar   44940 Triple Sugar Iron Agar
  70141 Koser Citrate Broth   93745 TSC Agar
  61348 Lactose Gelatin Broth   70188 Violet Red Bile Agar
  61749 Lauryl suIfate Broth   70195 Vogel-Johnson Agar
  62087 Levine EMB Agar   70196 Wort Agar
  61724 Liver Broth      
  62915 Lysine Iron Agar      
 
           
  Meat
 
  10825 APT Agar   72548 Nitrate Broth
  11705 Baird Parker Agar   70116 Nutrient Agar No 2
  95388 Bismuth sulfite Agar   70151 Nutrient Gelatin
  70133 Blood Agar (Base)   75315 OF Test Nutrient Agar
  53286 Brain Heart Broth   77187 Peptone Water
phosphate-buffered
  27048 Christensen’s Urea Agar   70152 Plate Count Agar
  44653 EC Broth   85463 Simmons Citrate Agar
  48905 Giolitti Cantoni Broth   85640 SS-Agar
  70187 Glucose Broth   88151 Tetrathionate Broth
  60641 KF-Streptococcus Agar   44940 Triple Sugar Iron Agar
  61348 Lactose Gelatin Broth   70194 Tryptone water
  61749 Lauryl suIfate Broth   93745 TSC Agar
  62087 Levine EMB Agar   51463 Urea Broth
  62895 Lysine Decarboxylase Salt Broth   70189 Violet Red Bile Glucose Agar
  62915 Lysine Iron Agar   70195 Vogel-Johnson Agar
  70143 Mac Conkey Agar No 1      
 
           
  Fresh and Frozen Fish
 
  10825 APT Agar   70152 Plate Count Agar
  70134 Brilliant Green Agar (modified)   83920 Rogosa Agar
  16025 Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth   85627 SPS Agar
  44653 EC Broth   86348 TCBS Agar
  49281 Glucose Salt Teepol Broth   91015 Tributyrin Agar
  50875 GSP Agar   44940 Triple Sugar Iron Agar
  61749 Lauryl sulfate Broth   93745 TSC Agar
  62087 Levine EMB Agar   93735 TSN Agar
  69965 Mossel Broth   70188 Violet Red Bile Agar
  69964 MRS Agar   70195 Vogel-Johnson Agar
  75405 Orange-serum Agar   96005 ZATK Agar
 

  Selection of Culture Media

Organisms Description (Occurrence and Mode of Action) Operation Culture Media
(Fluka Product Number)
Ref

Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus Moulds which form aflatoxins (cancerogenic) Examination:
Cultivation:
PYIA (77198)
Potato Dextrose Agar (70139)
1
3

Bacillus cereus Soil bacteria, food poisoning (enterotoxins) Examination: MYP (22310) or
PEMBA (-)
1
Confirmation: NG (70151), NB (72 548), BA (70133) 1
Cultivation: Nutrient Agar (70148),
Bacillus Broth (11703)
3

Bacillus subtilis Use for biotechnology, for teaching Cultivation: Nutrient Agar (70148)
Bacillus Broth (11703)
3

Brucelia abortus and melitensis Spontaneous abortion (cattle) Brucellosis (milk or meat from infected animals) Examination: BSA(-)
1

Campylobacter jejeuni Contaminated food (especially poultry), high fever, diarrhoe Enrichment:
Isolation:
CEB (22124)
CSA (= BA (70133) + Bacitracin (11 704) + Cycloheximide (01810)
Colistin sulfate (-) + Cefazolin (22127)(-) + Novobiocin (74675))
1
1
Confirmation: HIB (53275) BA (70133) or
TSB (20092)
1
Cultivation: Blood Agar (70133) 3

Clostridium botulinum Soil or water bacteria, improperly preserved food, botulism (neurological disease, botulinum toxins are the most poisonous known substances for man) Detection test for toxins: GPB (48726)
1
Enrichment: CM (60865) or PGYT (77412) 1
Isolation: LVEY (-) 1
Confirmation. CM (60865) or PGYT (77412) and LVEY (-) 1

Clostridium perfringens Anaerobic soil bacteria, food poisoning and gas gangrene (enterotoxin) Examination: TSC (93745) 1
Confirmation: TG (88159), TSC (93745), MN (14305),
LG (61348), PYS (83331) and PYR (82618)
1
Cultivation,
Enumeration:
Clostridium Agar (27548) 2

Coliformes Intestinal bacteria, contamination by faeces (lakes, rivers, swimming pools) Enumeration: LST-Broth (61749) 6

E. coli Intestinal bacteria (indicator for contamination by faeces), food poisoning (certain strains cause gastroenteritis), use in molecular biology MPN-Method: LST Broth (61749),
BGB (16025) and
PW (70179)
1,6
Membrane filter method: TSA (22091) and
ECD (44655)
1,5
Cultivation: Nutrient Agar (70148) 3
Fluorogenic test: LST-Mug (62634) 6

Enterobacteria Intestinal bacteria, contamination of food, insufficient pasteurisation and sterilisation, recontamination Examination: VRBG (70189) 1
Confirmation: TSA (22091) and OF (75315) 1
     
     

Lactobacilli Preparation of fermented food (yoghurt, sauerkraut, pickles) Enumeration: MRS (30912) 1

Listeria monocytogenes Intracellular pathogen (listeriosis, especially dangerous for the elderly and in pregnancy or diabetics); Contamination of raw milk and processed milk products Enrichment: LEB/FDA (61775) or
LEB l/FSIS (-) or
LEB Il/FSIS (-)
1
Selection: MCB (63595) and
AC (01677)
1
Confirmation: BA (70133) and
RHB (83655)
1
Cultivation: BHI (53286) 3

Mesophilic aerobes Indication of a possible contamination of the raw material, insufficient hygiene, poor storage or possible pathogenic microorganisms Enumeration: PC (70152), APT (10825) 1
Examination. SFP (85075) 1
Cultivation: Nutrient Broth (70149) or
Nutrient Agar (70116)
4
     

Mesophilic anaerobes Indication of a possible conta- mination of the raw material, insufficient hygiene, poor storage or possible patho- genic microorganisms Enumeration: BHIA (70138) 1
Cultivation: Thiogycolate Broth (70157) or Blood Agar Base (70133) 4
     
     

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Primarily a soil bacteria, food poisoning, cause of various infections (e.g. burns, urinary and respiratory tract) Agar plate method: CET (22470)
1
Membrane
filter method
CET (22470) 1
Confirmation: CET (22470),
KINGA (60788) and KINGB (60786)
1
Cultivation: Nutrient Agar (70148) 3

Salmonella spp. S. typhi and paratyphi: Typhoid fever or  paratyphoid from contaminated food and water; Other species: Foodborne gastro enteritis (e.g. raw eggs) Preculture: BPB (77187) 1,5
Enrichment EE (69965), TB (88151), SB (70153)
RB (84370)
1
Selection: BGA (16026), XLD (95586), SS (85640) or BS (95388) 1
Differentiation TSI (44940) and PA (78052) 1

Shigella spp. Enteric bacteria, contaminated food and water, Shigella dysenteriae (dysentery) Preculture: BPB (77187) 1
Enrichment GN (50738), EE (69965) or SB (70153) 1
Selection: HEA (51490),DCLS (70135),SS (85640)
or XLD (95586)
1
Differentiation TSI (44940) and PA (78052) 1
Cultivation Nutrient Agar (70148) 3

Soil bacteria Various functions Enumeration: Nutrient Agar (70148) or Plate Count Agar (70152) 4

Soil fungi Various functions Isolation:
Enumeration:
Czapek Dox Agar (70185) or Malt Extract Agar (70145) 4

Staphylococcus aureus Common parasite of human and animals, produces several enterotoxins, food poisoning (vomiting and diarrhoea), pyrogenic and respiratory infections Enumeration: CTNA (-) and TDNA (-) 1
MPN-Method: GC (48905) and
WA (05039)
1
Confirmation: BHI (53286) and
BA (70133)
1
Isolation,
differentiation:
Staphylococcus Agar (70193) 2
Cultivation: Nutrient Agar (70148) 3

Streptococcus faecalis and faecium (Enterococci) Intestinal bacteria, but lives also on plants. Indicator of insufficient hygiene (together with E. coli indicates presence of fecal material) Agarplate method: m-ENT(11853)  
Membrane filter method: m-ENT(11853)  
Confirmation: BHI (53286), BHIS (14315), BEA (48300)  

Streptococcus pyogenes Systemic in respiratory tract, cause of infectious diseases (e.g. scarlet fever) Examination.

Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus For yoghurt production (together with Lactobacillus bulgaricus) Enumeration. M17 (63016)  

Vibrio cholerae Water contaminated with human faeces, cholera enterotoxin (life-threatening diarrhoea) Examination: APW (70179, pH 8.7) and TCBS (86348)  

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Marine bacteria, foodborne disease (gasteroentritis from raw sea food) Preparation: N3P (Peptone + 3 % NaCI) 1
Enrichment
(MPN):
GSTP (49281) 1
Isolation TCBS (86348) 1
Confirmation: TSIS (44940 + NaCI), TSSA (22093)
or  TSSB (22094)
1
Differentiation: TSSA (22093), LDSB (62895), PSB (70169)
+ 70161 + NaCI),
TSSB (22094),
MR-VPS
(69150), OFS (75315)+NaCI) and
WAGA (92275)
1
Cultivation: Sea Water Agar (= 70164 + Peptone + 05039 + Sea water + Tap water) 3

Yeasts and moulds Can effect predisposition to infectious disease. Moulds can form mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins) Enumeration: PYA (77196) 1
Enumeration: Wort-Agar(70196) 2
Cultivation: Wort-Agar (70196),
Sabouraud Agar (84086) or
Malt Extract Agar (70145)
2,4

Yersinia enterocolitica Water and foodborne pathogen (especially pork) Preculture: YER(96757) 1
Enrichment: BOS (15830) 1
Isolation: CIN (95760) 1
Confirmation. KIA (60787), CUA (27048), SACB (84107)
and SALB (84155)
1
Cultivation: BHI (53286) 3


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