Molecular and cellular biology

Structures of human genes coding for cytokine LD78 and their expression.

PMID 1694014


LD78 is a member of a newly identified superfamily of small inducible proteins involved in inflammatory responses, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Southern blot analysis of the EcoRI-digested human genomic DNAs, using previously isolated LD78 cDNA as a probe, showed that in each individual there are 4.2- and 4.8-kilobase-pair (kb) fragments and that some have an additional 6.5-kb fragment. The 4.2-kb fragment contained genomic DNA sequences corresponding to the LD78 cDNA and was named the LD78 alpha gene. The 4.8-kb fragment contained similar sequences, showing 94% homology to the LD78 alpha gene, and was named the LD78 beta gene. The LD78 alpha gene was present in a single or a few copies per haploid genome, whereas the copy number of the LD78 beta gene and of the 6.5-kb fragment hybridizable to LD78 cDNA varied among the samples tested. Treatment of human myeloid cell lines HL-60 and U937 with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased within 2 h cellular levels of the RNA hybridizable to LD78 cDNA. The human glioma cell line U105MG and primary culture of human fibroblasts also expressed the hybridizable RNA in response to PMA. Addition of cycloheximide had no apparent effect on this response in U937 cells and inhibited the response in fibroblasts, whereas it stimulated the response in HL-60 and U105MG cells. mRNA phenotyping experiments revealed that the LD78 alpha and LD78 beta genes were both transcribed in PMA-stimulated U937 cells.