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Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers

Protein biomarkers of nephrotoxicity; a review and findings with cyclosporin A, a signal transduction kinase inhibitor and N-phenylanthranilic acid.


PMID 17192032

Abstract

Biomarkers of nephrotoxicity range from plasma and urine biochemistry, enzymic assays for brush border and lysosomal markers plus new protein markers by immunoassay. Because of the complexity of the nephron and regional sensitivity to xenobiotics, it is important to co-localise sites of marker release with pathological lesions. Han Wistar rats were treated p.o.for up to 14 days with compounds causing selective nephrotoxicity. Compounds used were cyclosporin A ,a signal transduction inhibitor and N-phenylanthranylic acid (NPAA). Plasma and urine was collected for biochemistry and urinalysis (including proteomics and metabonomics) and at termination kidneys were fixed for standard H&E pathology and immunohistochemistry examinations for D28 k calbindin, calmodulin, phospho-erk, Cox 1, Cox 2 and other markers. Cyclosporin A treatment caused injury to the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the nephron and was associated with a down-regulation of calbindin protein expression in cortical distal tubules (mean score 75% reduction) and TALs (21% reduction). Inhibition of signal transduction used p-erk as a downstream marker of activity. P-erk was highly expressed in the collecting ducts and inhibition of signalling caused a 39% reduction in IHC score. There was no evidence of direct renal injury by there was a hypercalcaemia (9% increase) and hyperphosphataemia (24% increase) at 24 hrs post-dose and metastatic calcification by 7 days. NPAA treatment caused renal papillary necrosis in some treated rats (sometimes unilateral) with some secondary dilation of distal tubules. Unlike NSAID treatment, there was no evidence of Cox 1 or 2 dysregulation on IHC and the Cox1 positive interstitial cells did not loose integrity before the onset of necrosis. There were a number of urinary proteomic and metabonomic alterations which are being characterised. The 3 model nephrotoxicants studied demonstrated the linkage of protein expression on IHC to nephron segment-specific sites as important for urinary biomarker validation and linkage to mechanisms.