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PloS one

TGF-beta and IL-10 production by HIV-specific CD8+ T cells is regulated by CTLA-4 signaling on CD4+ T cells.


PMID 20016783

Abstract

Immune dysregulation in HIV-1 infection is associated with increased expression of inhibitory molecules such as CTLA-4, TGF-beta, and IL-10. In this study we examined one potential mechanism for regulating TGF-beta and IL-10 expression by HIV-specific suppressor CD8+ T cells. No overlap between TGF-beta, IL-10, and IFN-gamma cytokine production by HIV-specific CD8+ T cells was observed. TGF-beta positive and IL-10 positive cells were FOXP3 negative, CD25 negative, and displayed a heterogeneous surface expression of CD127. TGF-beta and IL-10 positive CD8+ T cells did not express CTLA-4. Nevertheless, CTLA-4 blockade resulted in a significant decrease in HIV-specific TGF-beta positive and IL-10 positive CD8+ T cell responses, and a concomitant increase in HIV-specific IFN-gamma positive CD8+ T cell responses. Depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated the impact of CTLA-4 on HIV-specific TGF-beta positive and IL-10 positive CD8+ T cells. Our study suggests that CTLA-4 Signaling on CD4+ T cells regulates the inhibitory functions of the HIV-specific suppressor CD8+ T cells.