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British journal of cancer

TP53 regulates human AlkB homologue 2 expression in glioma resistance to Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy.


PMID 20661249

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising adjuvant therapy in cancer treatment. However, cancers resistant to PDT, mediated through the efflux of photosensitisers by means of P-glycoprotein or ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, have been reported. The DNA repair has also been suggested to be responsible for PDT resistance, but little is known about the repair pathways and mechanisms involved. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible function of six major DNA repair mechanisms in glioma cells resistant to Photofrin-mediated PDT (Ph-PDT). The U87 glioma cells relatively resistant to Ph-PDT were obtained by recovering the viable cells 3 h after PDT treatment. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DNA repair genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Small-interfering RNA and chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays were used to further examine the relationship between AlkB, an alkylation repair homologue 2 (Escherichia coli) (ALKBH2) and Ph-PDT responsiveness, and transcription factors involved in ALKBH2 transcription. The ALKBH2 of DNA damage reversal was significantly increased at both mRNA and protein levels from 30 min to 48 h post-treatment with Ph-PDT. Conversely, down-regulating ALKBH2 expression enhances Ph-PDT efficiency. Furthermore, our data clearly show for the first time that tumour protein (TP53) is directly involved by binding to the promoter of ALKBH2 in mediating Ph-PDT resistance. C The DNA damage reversal mechanisms may have important functions in Ph-PDT resistance through the activation of ALKBH2 by TP53.