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Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN

Aberrant regulation of planar cell polarity in polycystic kidney disease.


PMID 20705705

Abstract

Mutations in PKD1, which encodes polycystin-1 (PC1), contribute to >85% of cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is necessary for the oriented cell division and convergent extension that establishes and maintains the structure of kidney tubules, but the role of this pathway in the pathophysiology of ADPKD is incompletely understood. Here, we show that inactivation of Pkd1 in postnatal developing mouse kidneys leads to a defect in oriented cell division in precystic kidney tubules. We also observed this defect in precystic Pkd1-inactivated mature kidneys subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury as a "third hit." Cystic kidneys exhibited striking upregulation and activation of Frizzled 3 (Fz3), a regulator of PCP, and its downstream effector, CDC42. Precystic kidneys demonstrated upregulation of CDC42, but the localization of the polarity proteins Par3 and Par6 was similar to control. Fz3 was expressed on the cilia of cystic kidneys but barely detected on the cilia of normal kidneys. In vitro, PC1 and Fz3 antagonized each other to control CDC42 expression and the rate of cell migration in HEK293T cells. Taken together, our data suggest that PC1 controls oriented cell division and that aberrant PCP signaling contributes to cystogenesis.