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Toxicologic pathology

Evaluation of novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in two strains of rat treated with Cisplatin.


PMID 20716785

Abstract

Cisplatin is an anticancer agent that induces renal proximal tubule lesions in many species. Studies were conducted in Sprague-Dawley and Han-Wistar rats to evaluate the utility of novel preclinical biomarkers of nephrotoxicity for renal lesions caused by this compound. Groups of 10 males of each strain were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg cisplatin and were sacrificed on days 2, 3, and 5. The novel biomarkers α-glutathione-S-transferase (α-GST) (for proximal tubular injury), μ-glutathione-S-transferase (μ-GST) (for distal tubular injury), clusterin (for general kidney injury), and renal papillary antigen-1 (RPA-1) (for collecting duct injury) were measured in urine by enzyme immunoassay. Histologically, degeneration and necrosis of the S3 segment of the renal proximal tubule were observed on day 2 (Han-Wistar) and days 3 and 5 (both strains) at 1 and 3 mg/kg. Results showed that in both strains of rats, urinary α-GST and clusterin can be detected in urine soon after injury, are more sensitive than BUN and serum creatinine, and therefore are usable as noninvasive biomarkers of proximal tubule injury. Changes in both μ-GST or RPA-1 were considered to represent secondary minor effects of proximal tubular injury on distal segments of the nephron.