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Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland)

Second AKT: the rise of SGK in cancer signalling.


PMID 20919962

Abstract

The serum and glucocorticoid kinase (SGK) family of serine/threonine kinases consists of three isoforms, SGK-1, SGK-2 and SGK-3. This family of kinases is highly homologous to the AKT kinase family, sharing similar upstream activators and downstream targets. SGKs have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival and migration: cellular processes that are dysregulated in cancer. Furthermore, SGKs lie downstream of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3Kinase) signalling and interact at various levels with RAS/RAF/ERK signalling, two pathways that are involved in promoting tumorigenesis. Recent evidence suggests that mutant PI3Kinase can induce tumorigenesis through an AKT-independent but SGK3-dependent mechanism, thus implicating SGKs as potential players in malignant transformation. Here, we will review the current state of knowledge on the regulation of the SGKs and their role in normal cell physiology and transformation with a particular focus on SGK3.