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Allergy

PARP-1 deficiency blocks IL-5 expression through calpain-dependent degradation of STAT-6 in a murine asthma model.


PMID 21276008

Abstract

We recently showed that poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) may play a role in allergen (ovalbumin)-induced airway eosinophilia, potentially through a specific effect on IL-5 production. We also reported that while IL-5 replenishment promotes reversal of eosinophilia in lungs of PARP-1(-/-) mice, IL-4 or Immunoglobulin E replenishment do not, suggesting a potentially significant regulatory relationship between PARP-1 and IL-5. To explore the mechanism by which PARP-1 regulates IL-5 production and to determine how PARP-1 inhibition blocks allergen-induced eosinophilia. This study was conducted using a murine model of allergic airway inflammation and primary splenocytes. PARP-1 knockout-associated reduction in IL-5 upon allergen exposure occurs at the mRNA level. Such an effect appears to take place after IL-4 receptor activation as PARP-1 inhibition exerted no effect on JAK1/JAK3 activation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT-6) protein was severely downregulated in spleens of PARP-1(-/-) mice without any effect on mRNA levels, suggesting an effect on protein integrity rather than gene transcription. Interestingly, the degradation of STAT-6 in PARP-1(-/-) mice required allergen stimulation. Additionally, PARP-1 enzymatic activity appears to be required for STAT-6 integrity. The downregulation of STAT-6 coincided with mRNA and protein reduction of GATA-binding protein-3 and occupancy of its binding site on the IL-5 gene promoter. IL-4 was sufficient to induce STAT-6 downregulation in both PARP-1(-/-) mice and isolated splenocytes. Such degradation may be mediated by calpain, but not by proteasomes. These results demonstrate a novel function of PARP-1 in regulating IL-5 expression during allergen-induced inflammation and explain the underlying mechanism by which PARP-1 inhibition results in IL-5 reduction.

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