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PloS one

Osteoinduction of human mesenchymal stem cells by bioactive composite scaffolds without supplemental osteogenic growth factors.


PMID 22022571

Abstract

The development of a new family of implantable bioinspired materials is a focal point of bone tissue engineering. Implant surfaces that better mimic the natural bone extracellular matrix, a naturally nano-composite tissue, can stimulate stem cell differentiation towards osteogenic lineages in the absence of specific chemical treatments. Herein we describe a bioactive composite nanofibrous scaffold, composed of poly-caprolactone (PCL) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), which was able to support the growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and guide their osteogenic differentiation at the same time. Morphological and physical/chemical investigations were carried out by scanning, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical and wettability analysis. Upon culturing hMSCs on composite nanofibers, we found that the incorporation of either HA or TCP into the PCL nanofibers did not affect cell viability, meanwhile the presence of the mineral phase increases the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early marker of bone formation, and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes, such as the Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2) and bone sialoprotein (BSP), in total absence of osteogenic supplements. These results suggest that both the nanofibrous structure and the chemical composition of the scaffolds play a role in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs.

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