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Journal of molecular endocrinology

Differential expression and processing of secretogranin II in relation to the status of pheochromocytoma: implications for the production of the tumoral marker EM66.


PMID 22217803

Abstract

We have previously demonstrated that measurement of tissue concentrations of the secretogranin II (SgII or SCG2 as listed in the HUGO database)-derived peptide EM66 may help to discriminate between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and that EM66 represents a sensitive plasma marker of pheochromocytomas. Here, we investigated the gene expression and protein production of SgII in 13 normal adrenal glands, and 35 benign and 16 malignant pheochromocytomas with the goal to examine the molecular mechanisms leading to the marked variations in the expression of EM66 in tumoral chromaffin tissue. EM66 peptide levels were 16-fold higher in benign than in malignant pheochromocytomas and had an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.95 for the distinction of benign and malignant tumors. Q-PCR experiments indicated that the SgII gene was significantly underexpressed in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors. Western blot analysis using antisera directed against SgII and SgII-derived fragments revealed lower SgII protein and SgII-processing products in malignant tumors. Western blot also showed that low p-cAMP-responsive element-binding (CREB) concentrations seemed to be associated with the malignant status. In addition, the prohormone convertase PC1 and PC2 genes and proteins were overexpressed in benign pheochromocytomas compared with malignant pheochromocytomas. Low concentrations of EM66 found in malignant tumors are associated with reduced expression and production of SgII and SgII-derived peptides that could be ascribed to a decrease in SgII gene transcription, probably linked to p-CREB down-regulation, and to lower PC levels. These findings highlight the mechanisms leading to lower concentrations of EM66 in malignant pheochromocytoma and strengthen the notion that this peptide is a suitable marker of this neuroendocrine tumor.