Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Inactivation of androgen-induced regulator ARD1 inhibits androgen receptor acetylation and prostate tumorigenesis.

PMID 22315407


Androgen signaling through androgen receptor (AR) is critical for prostate tumorigenesis. Given that AR-mediated gene regulation is enhanced by AR coregulators, inactivation of those coregulators is emerging as a promising therapy for prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we show that the N-acetyltransferase arrest-defect 1 protein (ARD1) functions as a unique AR regulator in PCa cells. ARD1 is up-regulated in human PCa cell lines and primary tumor biopsies. The expression of ARD1 was augmented by treatment with synthetic androgen (R1881) unless AR is deficient or is inhibited by AR-specific siRNA or androgen inhibitor bicalutamide (Casodex). Depletion of ARD1 by shRNA suppressed PCa cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and xenograft tumor formation in SCID mice, suggesting that AR-dependent ARD1 expression is biologically germane. Notably, ARD1 was critical for transcriptionally regulating a number of AR target genes that are involved in prostate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, ARD1 interacted physically with and acetylated the AR protein in vivo and in vitro. Because AR-ARD1 interaction facilitated the AR binding to its targeted promoters for gene transcription, we propose that ARD1 functions as a unique AR regulator and forms a positive feedback loop for AR-dependent prostate tumorigenesis. Disruption of AR-ARD1 interactions may be a potent intervention for androgen-dependent PCa therapy.