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FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Mapping the functional domains of TCblR/CD320, the receptor for cellular uptake of transcobalamin-bound cobalamin.


PMID 23603833

Abstract

The membrane receptor TCblR/CD320 binds transcobalamin (TC) saturated with vitamin B12 [cobalamin (Cbl)] and mediates cellular uptake of the vitamin. The specificity of TC for Cbl and of the receptor for TC-Cbl ensures efficient uptake of Cbl into cells. The high-affinity interaction of TCblR with TC-Cbl (Ka=10 nM(-1)) was investigated using deletions and mutations of amino acid sequences in TCblR. Only the extracellular region (aa 32-229) is needed for TC-Cbl binding, but the N-glycosylation sites (N126, N195, and N213) are of no importance for this function. Deleting the cysteine-rich region (aa 95-141) that separates the two low-density lipoprotein receptor type A (LDLR-A) domains does not affect TC-Cbl binding (Ka = 19-24 nM(-1)). The two LDLR-A domains (aa 54-89 and 132-167) with the negatively charged acidic residues involved in Ca(2+) binding are critical determinants of ligand binding. The cytoplasmic tail is apparently crucial for internalization of the ligand. Within this region, the RPLGLL motif and the PDZ binding motifs (QERL/KESL) appear to be involved in initiating and completing the process of ligand internalization. Mutations and deletions of these regions involved in binding and internalization of TC-Cbl are likely to produce the biochemical and clinical phenotype of Cbl deficiency.