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Expert review of clinical pharmacology

The role of kidney in glucose homeostasis--SGLT2 inhibitors, a new approach in diabetes treatment.


PMID 23978089

Abstract

The role of the kidney in blood glucose-level regulation was until recently underestimated. Renal gluconeogenesis, renal glucose uptake and tubular glucose reabsorption are the three ways of renal involvement in glucose homeostasis. In the postabsorptive state, 20% of total glucose release is attributed to renal gluconeogenesis. Tubular glucose reabsorption is performed by the combined action of Na⁺/D-glucose SGLTs co-transporters and GLUT-facilitated diffusion glucose transporters. SGLT2 inhibitors are a new family of agents, which occlude the path of SGLT2 glucose reabsorption and cause glucosuria. Efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors includes reduction of HbA1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose level and slight body weight and systolic blood pressure decrease. The most common adverse events of them are genital mycotic and urinary tract infections. Dapagliflozin and canagliflozin are the first agents of this class, approved from the European Medicine Agency and FDA, respectively.