Journal of periodontal & implant science

Periodontal regeneration with nano-hyroxyapatite-coated silk scaffolds in dogs.

PMID 24455445


In this study, we investigated the effect of silk scaffolds on one-wall periodontal intrabony defects. We conjugated nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) onto a silk scaffold and then seeded periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) or dental pulp cells (DPCs) onto the scaffold. Five dogs were used in this study. Bilateral 4 mm×2 mm (depth×mesiodistal width), one-wall intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created on the distal side of the mandibular second premolar and the mesial side of the mandibular fourth premolar. In each dog, four of the defects were separately and randomly assigned to the following groups: the PDLC-cultured scaffold transplantation group (PDLC group), the DPC-cultured scaffold transplantation group (DPC group), the normal saline-soaked scaffold transplantation group, and the control group. The animals were euthanized following an 8-week healing interval for clinical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histologic evaluations. There was no sign of inflammation or other clinical signs of postoperative complications. The examination of cell-seeded constructs by SEM provided visual confirmation of the favorable characteristics of nHA-coated silk scaffolds for tissue engineering. The scaffolds exhibited a firm connective porous structure in cross section, and after PDLCs and DPCs were seeded onto the scaffolds and cultured for 3 weeks, the attachment of well-spread cells and the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) were observed. The histologic analysis revealed that a well-maintained grafted volume was present at all experimental sites for 8 weeks. Small amounts of inflammatory cells were seen within the scaffolds. The PDLC and DPC groups did not have remarkably different histologic appearances. These observations indicate that nHA-coated silk scaffolds can be considered to be potentially useful biomaterials for periodontal regeneration.