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Clinical calcium

[Sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate transporters and biomineralization].


PMID 24473358

Abstract

Phosphate (Pi), one of most abundant anions in living organisms, plays a crucial role in biomineralization. An adequate plasma Pi concentration is required to maintain the calcium × phosphate ion product within a range sufficient for physiological bone mineralization, but an increase in the calcium × phosphate product in extracellular fluids above a certain threshold can predispose to extraskeletal calcification. Membrane transport systems for Pi transport are key elements in maintaining homeostasis of Pi in organisms. Members of two families of solute carrier (SLC) proteins (SLC20 and SLC34) act as Na⁺ -dependent, secondary-active cotransporters to transport Pi across cell membranes in mammals. This review summarizes the role of SLC20 and SCL34 proteins on biomineralization.