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Reproduction (Cambridge, England)

Maternal thyroid dysfunction affects placental profile of inflammatory mediators and the intrauterine trophoblast migration kinetics.


PMID 24534949

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gene and immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory mediators involved in the immune activity and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placentas in hypothyroid and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated rats. A total of 144 adult female rats were divided equally into hypothyroid, l-T4-treated, and euthyroid (control) groups. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil. Rats were killed at 0, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 days of gestation. We evaluated the depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of interferon γ (INFy), migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 (iNOS)). The gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4, Infy, Mif, tumor necrosis factor (Tnf (Tnfα)), Il10, Nos2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9, and placental leptin was also measured in placental disks by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed using an Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test. Hypothyroidism reduced the endovascular and interstitial trophoblast migration, and the expression of TLR4, INFy, MIF, interleukin 10 (IL10), NOS2, MMP2 and MMP9, and placental leptin, while increased the expression of TLR2 (P<0.05). T4-treated rats not only increased the expression of IL10 and NOS2 but also reduced the expression of TNF and MIF at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05). However, at 19 days of gestation, expression of INFy and MIF was increased in T4-treated group (P<0.05). Excess of T4 also increased the gene expression of Mmp2 at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05), but reduced the endovascular trophoblast migration at 18 days of gestation (P<0.05). Hypothyroidism and excess of T4 differentially affect the immune profile and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placenta, and these effects are dependent on the gestational period.

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