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Drug and chemical toxicology

The effect of cloudy apple juice on hepatic and mammary gland phase I and II enzymes induced by DMBA in female Sprague-Dawley rats.


PMID 24580095

Abstract

Apples abundant in phenolic compounds show a variety of biological activities that may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. We investigated the effect of cloudy apple juice (CAJ) on the hepatic and mammary gland carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage and liver injury, altered by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Sprague-Dawley female rats were gavaged with CAJ (10 ml/kg b.w.) for 28 consecutive days. DMBA was administered i.p. on the 27th and the 28th days. In the liver, feeding with CAJ decreased the activities of CYP1A1 and 1A2 and increased phase II enzymes. The activities of all enzymes tested were enhanced in the animals treated with DMBA alone and in combination with CAJ. The most significant changes in the level of the hepatic enzymes tested were observed for GST alpha and NQO1. In mammary gland CAJ induced an increase in the level of GST mu and GST pi, while DMBA and CAJ combined administration elevated GST pi only. This may be beneficial as GST pi is involved in the DMBA detoxification. Additionally, pretreatment with CAJ reduced the level of most of the blood biochemical liver and kidney markers elevated as a result of DMBA treatment. These findings indicate that CAJ may interfere with enzyme system involved in carcinogen metabolism. However, this effect seems to be dependent on tissue and carcinogen and is moderately effective in the case of DMBA. Moreover, CAJ can also provide some protection against the liver and kidney damage.

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