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Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

Traditional serrated adenoma has two pathways of neoplastic progression that are distinct from the sessile serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis.


PMID 24603588

Abstract

Traditional serrated adenoma is one type of colorectal serrated neoplasm and a precursor of colorectal cancer. We evaluated the pathologic and molecular features of 60 traditional serrated adenomas with cytologic dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma. On the basis of morphological features, 16 cases (27%) were categorized as traditional serrated adenoma with serrated dysplasia and 25 cases (42%) as traditional serrated adenoma with conventional adenomatous dysplasia. In addition, 19 cases (31%) showed an overall tubulovillous adenomatous structure but with focal serrated feature. Traditional serrated adenoma with serrated dysplasia had a significantly higher frequency of BRAF mutation than traditional serrated adenoma with conventional adenomatous dysplasia and tubulovillous adenoma with serrated feature (P=0.006), whereas traditional serrated adenoma with conventional adenomatous dysplasia and tubulovillous adenoma with serrated feature had higher frequencies of KRAS mutation than traditional serrated adenoma with serrated dysplasia (P<0.0001). Only traditional serrated adenoma with serrated dysplasia showed sessile serrated adenoma-like lesions at the periphery (n=3) and developed invasive carcinomas when the lesions were <15 mm in size. Abnormal nuclear accumulation of β-catenin was detected in traditional serrated adenoma with conventional adenomatous dysplasia and tubulovillous adenoma with serrated feature but not in traditional serrated adenoma with serrated dysplasia. The frequency of the positive CpG island methylator phenotype was similar among the three dysplastic subtypes, and immunostaining of four mismatch repair proteins in the nucleus was retained in all traditional serrated adenomas and associated invasive malignancies. Traditional serrated adenoma-associated adenocarcinomas (n=28) displayed distinctive morphological features: oval cell nuclei, serrated glands, infiltrating borders, rare occurrences of necrosis and mucinous differentiation. Overexpression of p53 was detected only in high-grade dysplasia and invasive adenocarcinoma. Our findings indicate that traditional serrated adenoma is a heterogeneous neoplasm with two pathways of neoplastic progression, which are distinct from the sessile serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis.