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Journal of virology

Role of herpes simplex virus 1 immediate early protein ICP22 in viral nuclear egress.


PMID 24741100

Abstract

In order to investigate the novel function(s) of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein ICP22, we screened for ICP22-binding proteins in HSV-1-infected cells. Our results were as follows. (i) Tandem affinity purification of ICP22 from infected cells, coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics and subsequent analyses, demonstrates that ICP22 forms a complex(es) with the HSV-1 proteins UL31, UL34, UL47 (or VP13/14), and/or Us3. All these proteins were previously reported to be important for viral egress through the nuclear membrane. (ii) ICP22 colocalizes with UL31 and UL34 at the nuclear membrane in wild-type HSV-1-infected cells. (iii) The UL31-null mutation prevents the targeting of ICP22 to the nuclear membrane. (iv) The ICP22-null mutation resulted in UL31 and UL34 being mislocalized in the endoplasmic reticulum (in addition to the nuclear membrane) and significantly reduced numbers of primary enveloped virions in the perinuclear space, although capsids accumulated in the nuclei. Collectively, these results suggest that (i) ICP22 interacts with HSV-1 regulators of nuclear egress, including UL31, UL34, UL47, and Us3 in HSV-1-infected cells; (ii) UL31 mediates the recruitment and anchorage of ICP22 at the nuclear membrane; and (iii) ICP22 plays a regulatory role in HSV-1 primary envelopment, probably by interacting with and regulating UL31 and UL34. Here we report a previously unknown function for ICP22 in the regulation of HSV-1 nuclear egress. The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein ICP22 is recognized primarily as a regulator of viral gene expression. In this study, we show that ICP22 interacts with the HSV-1 proteins UL31 and UL34, which play crucial roles at the nuclear membrane in HSV-1 primary envelopment during viral nuclear egress. We also demonstrate that UL31 is required for the targeting of ICP22 to the nuclear membrane and that ICP22 is required for the correct localization of UL31 and/or UL34. Furthermore, we confirm that ICP22 is required for efficient HSV-1 primary envelopment during viral nuclear egress. Thus, we report, for the first time, that ICP22 plays a regulatory role in HSV-1 nuclear egress.