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Hippocampus

The anticoagulant activated protein C (aPC) promotes metaplasticity in the hippocampus through an EPCR-PAR1-S1P1 receptors dependent mechanism.


PMID 24753100

Abstract

Thrombin and other clotting factors regulate long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus through the activation of the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and consequent potentiation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) functions. We have recently shown that the activation of PAR1 either by thrombin or the anticoagulant factor activated protein C (aPC) has differential effects on LTP. While thrombin activation of PAR1 induces an NMDAR-mediated slow onset LTP, which saturates the ability to induce further LTP in the exposed network, aPC stimulation of PAR1 enhances tetanus induced LTP through a voltage-gated calcium channels mediated mechanism. In this study, we addressed the mechanisms by which aPC enhances LTP in hippocampal slices. Using extracellular recordings, we show that a short tetanic stimulation, which does not induce LTP, is able to enhance plasticity in the presence of aPC through a mechanism that requires the activation of sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 1 and intracellular Ca(2+) stores. These data identify aPC as a "metaplastic molecule", capable of shifting the threshold of LTP towards further potentiation. Our findings propose novel strategies to enhance plasticity in neurological diseases associated with the breakdown of the blood brain barrier and alterations in synaptic plasticity.

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