EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Environmental science and pollution research international

Degradation of anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen by electro-oxidation: comparison of electro-Fenton and anodic oxidation processes.


PMID 24756667

Abstract

The electrochemical degradation of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen in tap water has been studied using electro-Fenton (EF) and anodic oxidation (AO) processes with platinium (Pt) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes and carbon felt cathode. Fast degradation of the parent drug molecule and its degradation intermediates leading to complete mineralization was achieved by BDD/carbon felt, Pt/carbon felt, and AO with BDD anode. The obtained results showed that oxidative degradation rate of ketoprofen and mineralization of its aqueous solution increased by increasing applied current. Degradation kinetics fitted well to a pseudo-first-order reaction. Absolute rate constant of the oxidation of ketoprofen by electrochemically generated hydroxyl radicals was determined to be (2.8 ± 0.1) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) by using competition kinetic method. Several reaction intermediates such as 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, pyrogallol, catechol, benzophenone, benzoic acid, and hydroquinone were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. The formation, identification, and evolution of short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids like formic, acetic, oxalic, glycolic, and glyoxylic acids were monitored with ion exclusion chromatography. Based on the identified aromatic/cyclic intermediates and carboxylic acids as end products before mineralization, a plausible mineralization pathway was proposed. The evolution of the toxicity during treatments was also monitored using Microtox method, showing a faster detoxification with higher applied current values.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

36333
3-Hydroxybenzoic acid, analytical standard
C7H6O3
H20008
3-Hydroxybenzoic acid, ReagentPlus®, 99%
C7H6O3
33045
Benzoic acid, for calorimetrical determination (approx. 26460 J/g)
C7H6O2
06185
Benzoic acid, Standard for quantitative NMR, TraceCERT®
C7H6O2
1055002
Benzoic acid, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
C7H6O2
12356
Benzoic acid, tested according to Ph.Eur.
C7H6O2
PHR1050
Benzoic acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
C7H6O2
12353
Benzoic acid, certified reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM according to ISO 17025, ≥99.5%
C7H6O2
47849
Benzoic acid, analytical standard
C7H6O2
Y0001470
Benzoic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
C7H6O2
427551
Benzophenone, purified by sublimation, ≥99%
C13H10O
239852
Benzophenone, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
C13H10O
B9300
Benzophenone, ReagentPlus®, 99%
C13H10O
W213403
Benzophenone, ≥99%, FCC, FG
C13H10O
B3634
Benzophenone
C13H10O
12750
Benzophenone, purum, ≥99.0% (GC)
C13H10O
442842
Benzophenone, analytical standard
C13H10O
Y0000647
Benzophenone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
C13H10O
PHR1204
Benzophenone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
C13H10O
74347
Hydroquinone, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
C6H6O2
1324002
Hydroquinone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
C6H6O2
PHR1469
Hydroquinone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
C6H6O2
76170
Melting point standard 121-123°C, analytical standard
C7H6O2
50296
Melting point standard 47-49°C, analytical standard
C13H10O
73983
Mettler-Toledo Calibration substance ME 18555, Benzoic acid, analytical standard, for the calibration of the thermosystem 900, traceable to primary standards (LGC)
C7H6O2
73664
Mettler-Toledo Calibration substance ME 18870, Benzophenone, for the calibration of the thermosystem 900, traceable to primary standards (LGC)
C13H10O
P0381
Pyrogallol, ≥98% (HPLC)
C6H6O3
06931
Pyrogallol, analytical standard
C6H6O3
16040
Pyrogallol, ACS reagent, ≥99%
C6H6O3
254002
Pyrogallol, ACS reagent
C6H6O3