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Veterinary pathology

Molecular characterization of cat factor XII gene and identification of a mutation causing factor XII deficiency in a domestic shorthair cat colony.


PMID 24793828

Abstract

Coagulation factor XII (FXII) may be important in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. We have identified and characterized a naturally occurring mutation in the feline FXII gene that results in a mutant protein and enzymatic loss of activity. Feline intron/exon gene structure and sequence were acquired by comparing DNA sequences obtained from a fragmented Felis catus genomic sequence and the National Center for Biotechnology Information's Cross Species Megablast of multiple species' FXII gene sequences. Fourteen exons ranging in size from 57 to 222 base pairs were confirmed spanning 8 Kb on chromosome A1. The 1828-base pair feline FXII messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence contains an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 609 amino acids with high homology to human FXII protein. Total RNA and mRNA purified from liver tissue of 4 wild-type/normal and 8 FXII-deficient cats confirmed the predicted mRNA sequence and identified one important single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A single base deletion in exon 11 of the FXII coding gene in our colony of cats results in deficient FXII activity. Translation of the mRNA transcript shows a frame shift at L441 (C441fsX119) resulting in a nonsense mutation and a premature stop codon with a predicted 560-amino acid protein. The mutant FXII protein is truncated in the 3' proteolytic light chain region of the C-terminus, explaining its loss of enzymatic activity. This study is the first molecular characterization of the feline FXII gene and the first identification of an FXII mutation in the domestic cat, providing insights into the origin and nature of feline FXII deficiency.