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PloS one

Enhanced expression of WD repeat-containing protein 35 via CaMKK/AMPK activation in bupivacaine-treated Neuro2a cells.


PMID 24859235

Abstract

We previously reported that bupivacaine induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and nuclear factor-kappa B activation, resulting in an increase in expression of WD repeat-containing protein 35 (WDR35) in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells. However, the identity of signaling upstream of p38 MAPK pathways to WDR35 expression remains unclear. It has been shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can activate p38 MAPK through diverse mechanisms. In addition, several kinases acting upstream of AMPK have been identified including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Recent studies reported that AMPK may be involved in bupivacaine-induced cytotoxicity in Schwann cells and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The present study was undertaken to test whether CaMKK and AMPK are involved in bupivacaine-induced WDR35 expression in Neuro2a cells. Our results showed that bupivacaine induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK in Neuro2a cells. The AMPK inhibitors, compound C and iodotubercidin, attenuated the bupivacaine-induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, resulting in an inhibition of the bupivacaine-induced increase in WDR35 expression. Treatment with the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 also attenuated the bupivacaine-induced activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, resulting in an inhibition of the bupivacaine-induced increase in WDR35 expression. These results suggest that bupivacaine activates AMPK and p38 MAPK via CaMKK in Neuro2a cells, and that the CaMKK/AMPK/p38 MAPK pathway is involved in regulating WDR35 expression.