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Gynecologic oncology

Simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, exhibits anti-metastatic and anti-tumorigenic effects in endometrial cancer.


PMID 24880141

Abstract

Our goal was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cultures of endometrial cancer cells. Cell proliferation in the ECC-1 and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines and primary cultures of endometrial cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by Annexin V assay and propidium iodide staining, respectively. Reactive oxygen species and cell adhesion were assessed using ELISA assays. Invasion was analyzed using a transwell invasion assay. Mitochondrial DNA damage was confirmed using qPCR. The effects of simvastatin on the AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways were determined by Western blotting. Simvastatin inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both endometrial cancer cell lines and 5/8 primary cultures of endometrial cancer cells. Simvastatin treatment resulted in G1 cell cycle arrest, a reduction in the enzymatic activity of HMG-CoA, induction of apoptosis as well as DNA damage and cellular stress. Treatment with simvastatin resulted in inhibition of the MAPK pathway and exhibited differential effects on the AKT/mTOR pathway in the ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells. Minimal change in AKT phosphorylation was seen in both cell lines. An increase in phosphorylated S6 was seen in ECC-1 and a decrease was seen in Ishikawa. Treatment with simvastatin reduced cell adhesion and invasion (p<0.01) in both cell lines. Simvastatin had significant anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects in endometrial cancer cells, possibly through modulation of the MAPK and AKT/mTOR pathways, suggesting that statins may be a promising treatment strategy for endometrial cancer.