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Journal of neuroinflammation

Role of anti-inflammatory compounds in human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoprotein120-mediated brain inflammation.


PMID 24884548

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is a common immune response associated with brain human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Identifying therapeutic compounds that exhibit better brain permeability and can target signaling pathways involved in inflammation may benefit treatment of HIV-associated neurological complications. The objective of this study was to implement an in vivo model of brain inflammation by intracerebroventricular administration of the HIV-1 viral coat protein gp120 in rats and to examine anti-inflammatory properties of HIV adjuvant therapies such as minocycline, chloroquine and simvastatin. Male Wistar rats were administered a single dose of gp120ADA (500 ng) daily for seven consecutive days, intracerebroventricularly, with or without prior intraperitoneal administration of minocycline, chloroquine or simvastatin. Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, was administered intracerebroventricularly prior to gp120 administration for seven days as control. Real-time qPCR was used to assess gene expression of inflammatory markers in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured applying ELISA. Protein expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and P38 kinases (P38Ks)) was detected using immunoblot analysis. Student's t-test and ANOVA were applied to determine statistical significance. In gp120ADA-injected rats, mRNA transcripts of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were significantly elevated in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus compared to saline or heat-inactivated gp120-injected controls. In CSF, a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-1β was detected. Maraviroc reduced upregulation of these markers suggesting that the interaction of R5-tropic gp120 to CCR5 chemokine receptor is critical for induction of an inflammatory response. Minocycline, chloroquine or simvastatin attenuated upregulation of IL-1β and iNOS transcripts in different brain regions. In CSF, minocycline suppressed TNF-α and IL-1β secretion, whereas chloroquine attenuated IL-1β secretion. In gp120-injected animals, activation of ERK1/2 and JNKs was observed in the hippocampus and ERK1/2 activation was significantly reduced by the anti-inflammatory agents. Our data demonstrate that anti-inflammatory compounds can completely or partially reverse gp120-associated brain inflammation through an interaction with MAPK signaling pathways and suggest their potential role in contributing towards the prevention and treatment of HIV-associated neurological complications.