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International immunopharmacology

Class I-specific histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 overrides TRAIL-resistance in melanoma cells by downregulating c-FLIP.


PMID 24946096

Abstract

Tumor-necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has selective killing effect toward malignant cells; however some human melanomas are intrinsically resistant. In this study, we have shown that class I-specific histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) MS-275 can synergize with TRAIL to induce apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant cell lines and to enhance susceptibility of sensitive cells. Conversely, class II-selective HDACi MC1575 has shown no effect on the resistance of melanoma cells and was able exclusively to increase TRAIL-induced cell death in responsive cells. Both the HDACis variably increased DR4, DR5, and procaspase 8 expression, regardless whether cells were TRAIL-sensitive or TRAIL-resistant. However, only MS-275 markedly decreased the expression levels of both the long and short c-FLIP isoforms. RNAi-mediated c-FLIP silencing resulted in caspase 8-dependent apoptosis in survivor cells which was comparable to that observed following MS-275 treatment. Accordingly, enforced expression of ectopic c-FLIP has abolished the cooperative induction of apoptosis by the combination of MS-275 and TRAIL. These data indicate that c-FLIP is a critical regulator of death ligand sensitivity in melanoma. Inhibition of class I HDAC isoenzymes 1, 2 and 3 has resulted to be functionally important for c-FLIP downregulation by MS-275. In contrast, knockdown of class II HDACs has had no effect on c-FLIP expression, thus explaining the dual incapacity of MC1575 to inhibit c-FLIP expression and sensitize cells resistant to TRAIL. The data reported here suggest that MS-275 represents a promising therapeutic approach in combination with TRAIL for treatment of cutaneous and uveal melanoma due to its ability to reduce c-FLIP expression.

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EPS002
MS-275, A HDAC1 and HDAC3 inhibitor
C21H20N4O3