EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine

Progressive chromogenic anti-factor Xa assay and its use in the classification of antithrombin deficiencies.


PMID 24968404

Abstract

Antithrombin (AT) is a slow-acting progressive inhibitor of activated clotting factors, particularly thrombin and activated factor X (FXa). However, the presence of heparin or heparan sulfate accelerates its effect by several magnitudes. AT deficiency, a severe thrombophilia, is classified as type I (quantitative) and type II (qualitative) deficiency. In the latter case mutations may influence the reactive site, the heparin binding-site (HBS) and exert pleiotropic effect. Heterozygous type II-HBS deficiency is a less severe thrombophilia than other heterozygous subtypes. However, as opposed to other subtypes, it also exists in homozygous form which represents a very high risk of venous thromboembolism. A modified anti-FXa chromogenic AT assay was developed which determines both the progressive (p) and the heparin cofactor (hc) activities, in parallel. The method was evaluated and reference intervals were established. The usefulness of the assay in detecting type II-HBS AT deficiency was tested on 78 AT deficient patients including 51 type II-HBS heterozygotes and 18 homozygotes. Both p-anti-FXa and hc-anti-FXa assays showed excellent reproducibility and were not influenced by high concentrations of triglyceride, bilirubin and hemoglobin. Reference intervals for p-anti-FXa and hc-anti-FXa AT activities were 84%-117% and 81%-117%, respectively. Type II-HBS deficient patients demonstrated low (heterozygotes) or very low (homozygotes) hc-anti-FXa activity with normal or slightly decreased p-anti-FXa activity. The p/hc ratio clearly distinguished wild type controls, type II-HBS heterozygotes and homozygotes. Concomitant determination of p-anti-FXa and hc-anti-FXa activities provides a reliable, clinically important diagnosis of type II-HBS AT deficiency and distinguishes between homozygotes and heterozygotes.