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The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics

The guanosine-adenosine interaction exists in vivo.


PMID 25002416

Abstract

In cultured renal cells and isolated perfused kidneys, extracellular guanosine augments extracellular adenosine and inosine (the major renal metabolite of adenosine) levels by altering the extracellular disposition of these purines. The present study addressed whether this "guanosine-adenosine mechanism" exists in vivo. In rats (n = 15), intravenous infusions of adenosine (1 µmol/kg per minute) decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) from 114 ± 4 to 83 ± 5 mm Hg, heart rate (HR) from 368 ± 11 to 323 ± 9 beats/min), and renal blood flow (RBF) from 6.2 ± 0.5 to 5.3 ± 0.6 ml/min). In rats (n = 15) pretreated with intravenous guanosine (10 µmol/kg per minute), intravenous adenosine (1 µmol/kg per minute) decreased MABP (from 109 ± 4 to 58 ± 5 mm Hg), HR (from 401 ± 10 to 264 ± 20 beats/min), and RBF (from 6.2 ± 0.7 to 1.7 ± 0.3). Two-factor analysis of variance (2F-ANOVA) revealed a significant interaction (P < 0.0001) between guanosine and adenosine for MABP, HR, and RBF. In control rats, the urinary excretion rate of endogenous inosine was 211 ± 103 ng/30 minutes (n = 9); however, in rats treated with intravenous guanosine (10 µmol/kg per minute), the excretion rate of inosine was 1995 ± 300 ng/30 minutes (n = 12; P < 0.0001 versus controls). Because adenosine inhibits inflammatory cytokine production, we also examined the effects of intravenous guanosine on endotoxemia-induced increases in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In control rats (n = 7), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Escherichia coli 026:B6 endotoxin; 30 mg/kg) increased plasma TNF-α from 164 ± 56 to 4082 ± 730 pg/ml, whereas in rats pretreated with intravenous guanosine (10 µmol/kg per minute; n = 6), LPS increased plasma TNF-α from 121 ± 45 to 1821 ± 413 pg/ml (2F-ANOVA interaction effect, P = 0.0022). We conclude that the guanosine-adenosine mechanism exists in vivo and that guanosine may be a useful therapeutic for reducing inflammation.