Food chemistry

Development of an online-SPE-LC-MS method for the investigation of the intestinal absorption of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PHIP) and its bacterial metabolite PHIP-M1 in a Caco-2 Transwell system.

PMID 25053091


Heterocyclic aromatic amines such as PHIP are formed during the heat processing of food. PHIP undergoes bacterial metabolism leading to 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PHIP-M1) as main metabolite. We developed an LC-MS method with automated sample preparation by online-solid-phase-extraction for the simultaneous quantification of PHIP and its mammalian and bacterial metabolites N-hydroxy-PHIP, 4-OH-PHIP and PHIP-M1 in biological samples. The method was used to investigate the transport of PHIP-M1 through a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The experiments show that PHIP-M1 rapidly crosses the cell monolayer and that PHIP-M1 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein and the multiple drug resistance 2 transporter. The intestinal absorption of PHIP-M1 is comparable with that of PHIP and a moderate to high bioavailability has to be expected. Thus, not only the human metabolites of PHIP but also the bacterial metabolite PHIP-M1 formed in the gut could contribute to the toxic effects of PhIP.