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Molecular cancer research : MCR

Differential requirement for Src family tyrosine kinases in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of prostate cancer.


PMID 25053806

Abstract

Prostate cancer (CaP) recurrence after androgen ablation therapy remains a significant cause of mortality in aging men. Malignant progression and metastasis are typically driven by genetic and epigenetic changes controlled by the androgen receptor (AR). However, evidence suggests that activated nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including those of the Src family kinases (SFK), directly phosphorylate AR, thereby activating its transcriptional activity in the absence of serum androgen levels. To ascertain whether CaP progression and metastasis require SFK members, an autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma (AD) of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model was crossed into Src-, Lyn- or Fyn-null backgrounds. Primary-site CaP formation was dependent on Src, to a lesser extent, Lyn, but not Fyn. Only Src(-) (/) (-);TRAMP prostate tumors were marked by reactive stroma. SFK deficiency did not affect progression to neuroendocrine (NE) disease, although there were fewer new cancer cases initiating after 34 weeks in the SFK(-/-);TRAMP mice compared with TRAMP controls. Of note, 15% to 21% of older (>33 weeks) Lyn- or Fyn-null TRAMP mice lacking primary-site tumors suffered from aggressive metastatic AD growths, compared with 3% of TRAMP mice. Taken with the data that TRAMP mice lacking Src or Lyn exhibited fewer macroscopic metastases compared with Fyn(-) (/) (-);TRAMP and TRAMP controls, this suggests that SFK can either promote or suppress specific parameters of metastatic growth, possibly depending on cross-talk with primary tumors. These data identify critical, yet potentially opposing roles played by various SFKs in the initiation and metastatic potential of CaP using the TRAMP model. Genetically defined mouse models indicate a critical role for Src tyrosine kinase in CaP initiation and metastatic progression.