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Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine

Adenosine 2A receptor occupancy by tozadenant and preladenant in rhesus monkeys.


PMID 25082853

Abstract

Motor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) are caused by a loss of dopamine input from the substantia nigra to the striatum. Blockade of adenosine 2A (A(2A)) receptors facilitates dopamine D(2) receptor function. In phase 2 clinical trials, A(2A) antagonists (istradefylline, preladenant, and tozadenant) improved motor function in PD. We developed a new A(2A) PET radiotracer, (18)F-MNI-444, and used it to investigate the relationship between plasma levels and A(2A) occupancy by preladenant and tozadenant in nonhuman primates (NHP). A series of 20 PET experiments was conducted in 5 adult rhesus macaques. PET data were analyzed with both plasma-input (Logan graphical analysis) and reference-region-based (simplified reference tissue model and noninvasive Logan graphical analysis) methods. Whole-body PET images were acquired for radiation dosimetry estimates. Human pharmacokinetic parameters for tozadenant and preladenant were used to predict A(2A) occupancy in humans, based on median effective concentration (EC(50)) values estimated from the NHP PET measurements. (18)F-MNI-444 regional uptake was consistent with A(2A) receptor distribution in the brain. Selectivity was demonstrated by dose-dependent blocking by tozadenant and preladenant. The specific-to-nonspecific ratio was superior to that of other A(2A) PET radiotracers. Pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that tozadenant and preladenant may have different profiles of A(2A) receptor occupancy in humans. (18)F-MNI-444 appears to be a better PET radiotracer for A(2A) imaging than currently available radiotracers. Assuming that EC(50) in humans is similar to that in NHP, it appears that tozadenant will provide a more sustained A(2A) receptor occupancy than preladenant in humans at clinically tested doses.

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