Journal of cellular and molecular medicine

Shear flow affects selective monocyte recruitment into MCP-1-loaded scaffolds.

PMID 25103256


Novel cardiovascular replacements are being developed by using degradable synthetic scaffolds, which function as a temporary guide to induce neotissue formation directly in situ. Priming of such scaffolds with fast-releasing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was shown to improve the formation of functional neoarteries in rats. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of a burst-release of MCP-1 from a synthetic scaffold on the local recruitment of circulating leucocytes under haemodynamic conditions. Herein, we hypothesized that MCP-1 initiates a desired healing cascade by recruiting favourable monocyte subpopulations into the implanted scaffold. Electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds were loaded with fibrin gel containing various doses of MCP-1 and exposed to a suspension of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in static or dynamic conditions. In standard migration assay, a dose-dependent migration of specific CD14(+) monocyte subsets was observed, as measured by flow cytometry. In conditions of pulsatile flow, on the other hand, a marked increase in immediate monocyte recruitment was observed, but without evident selectivity in monocyte subsets. This suggests that the selectivity was dependent on the release kinetics of the MCP-1, as it was overruled by the effect of shear stress after the initial burst-release. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that local recruitment of specific MCP-1-responsive monocytes is not the fundamental principle behind the improved neotissue formation observed in long-term in vivo studies, and mobilization of MCP-1-responsive cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream is suggested to play a predominant role in vivo.