Phytochemical analysis : PCA

Qualitative and spatial metabolite profiling of lichens by a LC-MS approach combined with optimised extraction.

PMID 25130294


Lichens are self-sustaining partnerships comprising fungi as shape-forming partners for their enclosed symbiotic algae. They produce a tremendous diversity of metabolites (1050 metabolites described so far). A comparison of metabolic profiles in nine lichen species belonging to three genera (Lichina, Collema and Roccella) by using an optimised extraction protocol, determination of the fragmentation pathway and the in situ localisation for major compounds in Roccella species. Chemical analysis was performed using a complementary study combining a Taguchi experimental design with qualitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Optimal conditions to obtain the best total extraction yield were determined as follows: mortar grinding to a fine powder, two successive extractions, solid:liquid ratio (2:60) and 700 rpm stirring. Qualitative analysis of the metabolite profiling of these nine species extracted with the optimised method was corroborated using MS and MS/MS approaches. Nine main compounds were identified: 1 β-orcinol, 2 orsellinic acid, 3 putative choline sulphate, 4 roccellic acid, 5 montagnetol, 6 lecanoric acid, 7 erythrin, 8 lepraric acid and 9 acetylportentol, and several other compounds were reported. Identification was performed using the m/z ratio, fragmentation pathway and/or after isolation by NMR analysis. The variation of the metabolite profile in differently organised parts of two Roccella species suggests a specific role of major compounds in developmental stages of this symbiotic association. Metabolic profiles represent specific chemical species and depend on the extraction conditions, the kind of the photobiont partner and the in situ localisation of major compounds.