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Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

Phytoextraction and dissipation of lindane by Spinacia oleracea L.


PMID 25133347

Abstract

Remediation and management of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) contaminated soil is becoming a global priority as they are listed in the Stockholm list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for global elimination. Lindane is a OCPs candidate recently included in the Stockholm list. However, India has an exemption to produce lindane for malaria control. Because of its widespread use during the last few decades, lindane contaminated soils are found in almost all parts of India. Since phytoremediation is widely acknowledged as an innovative strategy for the clean-up of contaminated soils; the present study was aimed to evaluate the phytoextraction and dissipation of lindane by a leafy vegetable Spinacia oleracea L (Spinach). The test plant was grown in different concentrations of lindane (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg(-1)) and harvested at 10, 30 and 45 days. At 45 days, the concentrations of lindane in root and leaf of Spinach growing in four different concentrations were reached up to 3.5, 5.4, 7.6 and 12.3 mg kg(-1) and 1.8, 2.2, 3 and 4.9 mg kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the dissipation of lindane in vegetated and non-vegetated soil. Moreover, the residual lindane in four experiments was reduced to 81, 76, 69 and 61 percent, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Spinach can be used for the phytoremediation of lindane. However, more studies are required to prevent the toxicity of harvested parts.