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European urology

Efficacy outcomes by baseline prostate-specific antigen quartile in the AFFIRM trial.


PMID 25171902

Abstract

Enzalutamide significantly prolonged the survival of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) after docetaxel in the randomised, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational Patients with Progressive Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Previously Treated with Docetaxel-Based Chemotherapy (AFFIRM) trial (NCT00974311). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is commonly used as a marker of PCa disease burden, and the relationship of baseline PSA level to consequent treatment effect is of clinical interest. Exploratory analysis to evaluate any differences in patient characteristics and efficacy outcomes by baseline PSA level in the AFFIRM trial. Post hoc subanalysis of all randomised patients (n=1199) from the AFFIRM trial. Participants were randomly assigned in a two-to-one ratio to receive oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d or placebo. The major clinical efficacy end points were overall survival (OS), radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), and time to PSA progression (TTPP) versus placebo; baseline characteristics, treatment duration, and subsequent antineoplastic therapy were compared by baseline PSA quartile. Baseline PSA quartiles corresponded to the following PSA groups: <40 ng/ml (n=299), 40 to <111 ng/ml (n=300), 111 to <406 ng/ml (n=300), and ≥406 ng/ml (n=300). Enzalutamide consistently improved OS, rPFS, and TTPP compared with placebo across all subgroups, regardless of baseline PSA level. Hazard ratios for improvements in OS were 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.85), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.47-1.02), 0.73 (95% CI, 0.53-1.01), and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.39-0.73) for PSA groups 1-4, respectively. The post hoc design of this analysis was not statistically powered to assess the relationship between baseline PSA and clinical efficacy outcomes. This post hoc analysis of the AFFIRM trial demonstrates consistent benefits in OS, rPFS, and TTPP with enzalutamide regardless of baseline disease severity, as assessed by PSA. Exploratory post hoc analysis of the AFFIRM trial showed that enzalutamide improves overall survival, radiographic progression-free survival, and time to prostate-specific antigen progression compared with placebo regardless of baseline disease severity, as assessed by prostate-specific antigen. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00974311.