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The Journal of biological chemistry

The molecular basis of leukocyte adhesion involving phosphatidic acid and phospholipase D.


PMID 25187519

Abstract

Defining how leukocytes adhere to solid surfaces, such as capillary beds, and the subsequent migration through the extracellular matrix, is a central biological issue. We show here that phospholipase D (PLD) and its enzymatic reaction product, phosphatidic acid (PA), regulate cell adhesion of immune cells (macrophages and neutrophils) to collagen and have defined the underlying molecular mechanism in a spatio-temporal manner that coincides with PLD activity timing. A rapid (t½ = 4 min) and transient activation of the PLD1 isoform occurs upon adhesion, and a slower (t½ = 7.5 min) but prolonged (>30 min) activation occurs for PLD2. Importantly, PA directly binds to actin-related protein 3 (Arp3) at EC50 = 22 nm, whereas control phosphatidylcholine did not bind. PA-activated Arp3 hastens actin nucleation with a kinetics of t½ = 3 min at 300 nm (compared with controls of no PA, t½ = 5 min). Thus, PLD and PA are intrinsic components of cell adhesion, which reinforce each other in a positive feedback loop and react from cues from their respective solid substrates. In nascent adhesion, PLD1 is key, whereas a sustained adhesion in mature or established focal points is dependent upon PLD2, PA, and Arp3. A prolonged adhesion could effectively counteract the reversible intrinsic nature of this cellular process and constitute a key player in chronic inflammation.