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The Journal of infectious diseases

Rifaximin has a marginal impact on microbial translocation, T-cell activation and inflammation in HIV-positive immune non-responders to antiretroviral therapy - ACTG A5286.


PMID 25214516

Abstract

Rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic that decreases lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cirrhotics, may decrease the elevated levels of microbial translocation, T-cell activation and inflammation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive immune nonresponders to antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV-positive adults receiving ART for ≥96 weeks with undetectable viremia for ≥48 weeks and CD4(+) T-cell counts <350 cells/mm(3) were randomized 2:1 to rifaximin versus no study treatment for 4 weeks. T-cell activation, LPS, and soluble CD14 were measured at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, and 8. Wilcoxon rank sum tests compared changes between arms. Compared with no study treatment (n = 22), rifaximin (n = 43) use was associated with a significant difference between study arms in the change from baseline to week 4 for CD8(+)T-cell activation (median change, 0.0% with rifaximin vs +0.6% with no treatment; P = .03). This difference was driven by an increase in the no-study-treatment arm because there was no significant change within the rifaximin arm. Similarly, although there were significant differences between study arms in change from baseline to week 2 for LPS and soluble CD14, there were no significant changes within the rifaximin arm. In immune nonresponders to ART, rifaximin minimally affected microbial translocation and CD8(+)T-cell activation. Trial registration number. NCT01466595.