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Journal of applied toxicology : JAT

Graphene supports in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of goat adult mesenchymal stem cells: potential for bone tissue engineering.


PMID 25220951

Abstract

Current treatments for bone loss injuries involve autologous and allogenic bone grafts, metal alloys and ceramics. Although these therapies have proved useful, they suffer from inherent challenges, and hence, an adequate bone replacement therapy has not yet been found. We hypothesize that graphene may be a useful nanoscaffold for mesenchymal stem cells and will promote proliferation and differentiation into bone progenitor cells. In this study, we evaluate graphene, a biocompatible inert nanomaterial, for its effect on in vitro growth and differentiation of goat adult mesenchymal stem cells. Cell proliferation and differentiation are compared between polystyrene-coated tissue culture plates and graphene-coated plates. Graphitic materials are cytocompatible and support cell adhesion and proliferation. Importantly, cells seeded on to oxidized graphene films undergo osteogenic differentiation in fetal bovine serum-containing medium without the addition of any glucocorticoid or specific growth factors. These findings support graphene's potential to act as an osteoinducer and a vehicle to deliver mesenchymal stem cells, and suggest that the combination of graphene and goat mesenchymal stem cells provides a promising construct for bone tissue engineering.