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Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Effect of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nuclear hardness on maintenance of mydriasis during phacoemulsification surgery.


PMID 25230350

Abstract

To compare the effects of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on pupil dilation maintenance during phacoemulsification cataract surgery and quantify the relationships between pupil size change and nuclear hardness. This prospective randomized clinical observation study was single centered and double-masked. We studied 239 cases undergoing uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the absence of significant ocular comorbidity. Cases were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 groups receiving the following treatments: (1) diclofenac (0.1%); (2) pranoprofen (0.1%); (3) control, physiological normal saline solution; (4) diclofenac (0.1%) and epinephrine; (5) pranoprofen (0.1%) and epinephrine; (6) control, physiological normal saline and epinephrine solutions. Pupil diameter was measured at 3 intervals of cataract surgery: before the first incision, at the end of nucleus fragmentation, and at the end of cortex irrigation/aspiration. Compared with patients who were not treated, there was a significant difference in maintaining pupil dilation throughout the operation when the patients were treated with either diclofenac or pranoprofen, P<0.001 and P<0.03, respectively. From the first incision to postnucleus fragmentation, the change in pupil size in both diclofenac and control groups was significantly associated with the hardness of the crystalline lens, P=0.001 and P=0.012, respectively. At the end of irrigation/aspiration, the change in pupil size in only the control groups was significantly associated with the hardness of the crystalline lens, P=0.022. Diclofenac treatment was most effective at inhibiting pupil miosis when the hardness of the nucleus was grade 3, P=0.009. Pupil miosis was not related to the hardness of the nucleus when the patients were treated with epinephrine. Both diclofenac and pranoprofen treatment inhibit surgical-induced miosis. There is a negative correlation between the hardness of the crystalline lens and pupil diameter maintenance at the early stage of phacoemulsification.