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Environmental science and pollution research international

Field application of passive SBSE for the monitoring of pesticides in surface waters.


PMID 25231742

Abstract

Spot sampling lacks representativeness for monitoring organic contaminants in most surface waters. Passive sampling has emerged as a cost-effective complementary sampling technique. We recently developed passive stir bar sorptive extraction (passive SBSE), with Twister from Gerstel, for monitoring moderately hydrophilic to hydrophobic pesticides (2.18 < log K ow < 5.11) in surface water. The aims of the present study were to assess this new passive sampler for the determination of representative average concentrations and to evaluate the contamination levels of two French rivers. Passive SBSE was evaluated for the monitoring of 16 pesticides in two rivers located in a small vineyard watershed during two 1-month field campaigns in spring 2010 and spring 2011. Passive SBSE was applied for periods of 1 or 2xa0weeks during the field campaigns and compared with spot sampling and weekly average automated sampling. The results showed that passive SBSE could achieve better time-representativeness than spot sampling and lower limits of quantification than automated sampling coupled with analytical SBSE for the pesticides studied. Finally, passive SBSE proved useful for revealing spatial and temporal variations in pesticide contamination of both rivers and the impact of rainfall and runoff on the river water quality.