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Cardiovascular diabetology

A score to quantify coronary plaque vulnerability in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes: an optical coherence tomography study.


PMID 25248966

Abstract

Patients with type 2 diabetes are at a high risk for acute cardiovascular events, which usually arise from the rupture of a vulnerable coronary lesion characterized by specific morphological plaque features. Thus, the identification of vulnerable plaques is of utmost clinical importance in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, there is currently no scoring system available to identify vulnerable lesions based on plaque characteristics. Thus, we aimed to characterize the diagnostic value of optical coherence tomography (OCT) - derived lesion characteristics to quantify plaque vulnerability both as individual parameters and when combined to a score in patients with type 2 diabetes. OCT was performed in the coronary culprit lesions of 112 patients with type 2 diabetes. The score, which quantifies plaque vulnerability, was defined as the predicted probability that a lesion is the cause for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (vs. stable angina (SAP)) based on its specific plaque morphology. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that plaque vulnerability was independently predicted by the minimal fibrous cap thickness overlying a lesion's lipid core (odds ratio (OR) per 10xa0μm 0.478, p = 0.002), the medium lipid arc (OR per 90° 13.997, p < 0.001), the presence of macrophages (OR 4.797, p = 0.015) and the lipid plaque length (OR 1.290, p = 0.098). This is the first study to present a score to quantify lesion vulnerability in patients with type 2 diabetes. This score may be a valuable adjunct in decision-making and useful in guiding coronary interventions.