The journal of trauma and acute care surgery

High-altitude pulmonary edema can be prevented by heat shock protein 70-mediated hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning.

PMID 25250598


The primary goal of this study was to test whether high-altitude exposure (HAE of 9.7% O2 at 0.47 absolute atmosphere [ATA] for 3 days) was capable of increasing lung edema, neutrophil, and hemorrhage scores as well as decreasing lung levels of both aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and AQP5 proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rats, with a secondary goal to test whether a preinduction of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO2P of 100% O2 at 2.0 ATA for 1 hour per day for 5 consecutive days) attenuated the HAE-induced increased lung injury scores and decreased lung AQP1 and AQP5 protein and mRNA expressions. Rats were assigned to (1) non-HBO2P (21% O2 at 1.0 ATA) + non-HAE (21% O2 at 1.0 ATA) group; (2) non-HBO2P + HAE group; (3) HBO2P + HAE group; and HBO2P + HSP70 antibodies (Ab) + HAE group. For the HSP70 Ab group, a neutralizing HSP70 Ab was injected intravenously at 24 hours before HAE. All the physiologic and biochemical parameters were obtained at the end of HAE or the equivalent period of non-HAE. The cardiovascular and blood gas parameters were monitored for all experiments. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to determine proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β, and tumor necrosis factor α). Parts of the lung were excised for myeloperoxidase activity measurement, whereas the rest was collected for lung damage score assessments. AQP1 and AQP5 protein and mRAN expressions were also determined in the lung tissues. In the non-HBO2P + HAE group, the animals displayed higher values of lung myeloperoxidase activity, BAL proinflammatory cytokines, lung water weight, and acute lung injury scores compared with those of the non-HBO2P + non-HAE controls. In contrast, the non-HBO2P + HAE group rats had lower values of lung AQP1 and AQP5 protein and mRNA expressions, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, SO2, Paco2, HCO3, and pH compared with those of non-HBO2P + non-HAE group rats. The increased acute lung edema, neutrophil, and hemorrhage scores; increased BAL levels of proinflammatory cytokines; decreased lung AQP1 and AQP5 protein and mRNA expressions; and hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxia, and acidosis caused by HAE were all significantly attenuated by HBO2P. Our data indicate that HBO2P may attenuate high-altitude acute lung injury by a preinduction of lung HSP70 in rats.