Veterinary research

Gene-expression profiling of calves 6 and 9xa0months after inoculation with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

PMID 25294045


Early detection of Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is essential to reduce transmission; consequently, new diagnostic techniques and approaches to detect MAP or markers of early MAP infection are being explored. The objective was to identify biomarkers associated with MAP infection at 6 and 9xa0months after oral inoculation. Therefore, gene expression analysis was done using whole blood cells obtained from MAP-infected calves. All MAP-inoculated calves had a cell-mediated immune response (IFN-γ) to Johnin PPD specific antigens, and 60% had an antibody response to MAP antigens. Gene expression analysis at 6xa0months after inoculation revealed downregulation of chemoattractants, namely neutrophil beta-defensin-9 like peptide (BNBD9-Like), S100 calcium binding protein A9 (s100A9) and G protein coupled receptor 77 (GPR77) or C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor (C5a2). Furthermore, BOLA/MHC-1 intracellular antigen presentation gene was downregulated 9xa0months after inoculation. In parallel, qPCR experiments to evaluate the robustness of some differentially expressed genes revealed consistent downregulation of BOLA/MHC-I, BNBD9-Like and upregulation of CD46 at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15xa0months after inoculation. In conclusion, measuring the expression of these genes has potential for implementation in a diagnostic tool for the early detection of MAP infection.