International journal of clinical practice

Reduction in saturated fat intake improves cardiovascular risks in obese adolescents during interdisciplinary therapy.

PMID 25296762


Obesity is related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease. The increase in saturated fatty acid intake (SFA) can potentiate cardiovascular risks. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of change in SFA on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), metabolic profile and anti/pro-inflammatory adipokines in obese adolescents. Sixty obese adolescents were subjected to 1 year of interdisciplinary intervention (nutrition, psychology, physical exercise and clinical therapy). Blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and adiponectin were analysed. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD. cIMT was measured by ultrasonography. Dietetic intake was calculated by 3-day dietary record. Volunteers were analysed according to tertiles of change (Δ) in SFA intake: Low-SFA reduction<3.68 g; Moderate-SFA reduction 3.68-13.67 g; and High-SFA reduction>13.67 g. Moderate and High-SFA tertiles presented reduction in insulin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, cIMT and increase in adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adiponectin/leptin ratio was predictor of cIMT. HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol reduced only in High-SFA tertile, and was associated with SFA independent of visceral fat. Negative correlations between Δ of SFA and adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio were observed. Obese adolescents with moderate and high reduction in SFA presented improvements on pro/anti-inflammatory biomarkers and cIMT, leading to reduction in cardiovascular risks.