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Pharmaceutical biology

Antidiabetic, antilipidemic, and antioxidant activities of Gouania longipetala methanol leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.


PMID 25330778

Abstract

Gouania longipetala Hemsl. (Rhamnaceae) is used in folkloric medicine for treating diabetes mellitus and its associated symptoms. This study evaluated the antidiabetic antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of the plant methanol leaf extract. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (160 mg/kg). Three test doses (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) of G. longipetala extract (GLE) were administered orally and the effects were compared with glibenclamide (2 mg/kg). The effect of GLE on hyperglycemia and sub-acute study for 21 d were carried out using its effect on fasting blood sugar (FBS) level. Serum biochemistry and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Histopathological evaluation of the pancreas was also done. The LD50 of G. longipetala was found to be >4000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased the FBS levels of treated rats from 16.2 ± 2.03 to 6.5 ± 1.52 mM/L at 150 mg/kg within 24 h. The extract decreased FBS levels of rats by 62.0, 74.8, and 75.0% on day 21 at 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, respectively. GLE reduced the level of malondiadehyde from 23.0 ± 1.34 to 10.3 ± 0.43 mg/dL, increased superoxide dismutase activities from 2.97 ± 0.34 to 5.80 ± 0.53 IU/L at 150 mg/kg, and improved the serum lipid profile of treated rats. GLE also caused restoration of the altered histopathological changes of the pancreas. Gouania longipetala demonstrated significant antidiabetic, antilipidemic, and antioxidant activities that may be due to its multiple effects involving both pancreatic and extra-pancreatic mechanisms.