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Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)

Tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) ligands for immunoconjugate PET imaging with (89)Zr(4+): comparison with desferrioxamine-B.


PMID 25351250

Abstract

Due to its long half-life (78 h) and decay properties (77% electron capture, 23% β(+), Emax = 897 keV, Eav = 397 keV, Eγ = 909 keV, Iγ = 100%) (89)Zr is an appealing radionuclide for immunoPET imaging with whole IgG antibodies. Derivatives of the siderophore desferrioxamine-B (H3DFO) are the most widely used bifunctional chelators for coordination of (89)Zr(4+) because the radiolabeling of the resulting immunoconjugates is rapid under mild conditions. (89)Zr-DFO complexes are reportedly stable in vitro but there is evidence that (89)Zr(4+) is released in vivo, and subsequently taken up by the skeleton. We have evaluated a novel tripodal tris(hydroxypyridinone) chelator, H3CP256 and its bifunctional maleimide derivative, H3YM103, for coordination of Zr(4+) and compared the NMR spectra, and the (89)Zr(4+) radiolabeling, antibody conjugation, serum stability and in vivo distribution of radiolabelled immunoconjugates with those of H3DFO and its analogues. H3CP256 coordinates (89)Zr(4+) at carrier-free concentrations forming [(89)Zr(CP256)](+). Both H3DFO and H3CP256 were efficiently radiolabelled using [(89)Zr(C2O4)4](4-) at ambient temperature in quantitative yield at pH 6-7 at millimolar concentrations of chelator. Competition experiments demonstrate that (89)Zr(4+) dissociates from [(89)Zr(DFO)](+) in the presence of one equivalent of H3CP256 (relative to H3DFO) at pH 6-7, resulting largely in [(89)Zr(CP256)](+). To assess the stability of H3DFO and H3YM103 immunoconjugates radiolabelled with (89)Zr, maleimide derivatives of the chelators were conjugated to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab via reduced cysteine side chains. Both immunoconjugates were labelled with (89)Zr(4+) in >98% yield at high specific activities and the labeled immunoconjugates were stable in serum with respect to dissociation of the radiometal. In vivo studies in mice indicate that (89)Zr(4+) dissociates from YM103-trastuzumab with significant amounts of activity becoming associated with bones and joints (25.88 ± 0.58% ID g(-1) 7 days post-injection). In contrast, <8% ID g(-1) of (89)Zr activity becomes associated with bone in animals administered (89)Zr-DFO-trastuzumab over the course of 7 days. The tris(hydroxypyridinone) chelator, H3CP256, coordinates (89)Zr(4+) rapidly under mild conditions, but the (89)Zr-labelled immunoconjugate, (89)Zr-YM103-trastuzumab was observed to release appreciable amounts of (89)Zr(4+)in vivo, demonstrating inferior stability when compared with (89)Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. The significantly lower in vivo stability is likely to be a result of lower kinetic stability of the Zr(4+) tris(hydroxypyridinone complex) relative to that of DFO and its derivatives.