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Journal of Korean medical science

Gender differences in the association between depressive symptoms and carotid atherosclerosis among middle-aged and older Koreans: the Namwon study.


PMID 25408582

Abstract

We investigated the association of depressive symptoms with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques in the general Korean population. A total of 7,554 Korean males and females aged 45-74 yr who were free from cardiovascular diseases were included in the analyses. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Subjects with a score of ≥16 were classified as having clinically significant depressive symptoms. Carotid ultrasonography was used to measure mean carotid IMT (C-IMT) and to determine the presence of plaques. A significant association between depressive symptoms and C-IMT was observed only in females. After adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, females with depressive symptoms had significantly greater C-IMT than females without depressive symptoms (mean difference 0.011±0.004 mm; 95% confidence interval, 0.003-0.019 mm). Compared with controls, the fully adjusted risk of females with depressive symptoms for abnormal C-IMT (≥1.0 mm) was significant (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.30). No significant association between depressive symptoms and carotid plaques was observed in either gender. This study shows a significant association between depressive symptoms and C-IMT in middle-aged and older females.