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Cell death & disease

Activation of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channel by ROS contributes to ER stress and cardiac contractile dysfunction: involvement of CHOP through Wnt.


PMID 25412307

Abstract

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurring in stringent conditions is critically involved in cardiomyocytes apoptosis and cardiac contractile dysfunction (CCD). However, the molecular machinery that mediates cardiac ER stress and subsequent cell death remains to be fully deciphered, which will hopefully provide novel therapeutic targets for these disorders. Here, we establish tunicamycin-induced model of cardiomyocyte ER stress, which effectively mimicks pathological stimuli to trigger CCD. Tunicamycin activates volume-sensitive outward rectifying Cl(-) currents. Blockade of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channel by 4,4'-diisothiocya-natostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a non-selective Cl(-) channel blocker, and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), a selective VSOR Cl(-) channel blocker, improves cardiac contractility, which correlates with suppressed ER stress through inhibiting the canonical GRP78/eIF2α/ATF4 and XBP1 pathways, and promotes survival of cardiomyocytes by inverting tunicamycin-induced decrease of Wnt through the CHOP pathway. VSOR activation of tunicamycin-treated cardiomyocytes is attributed to increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our study demonstrates a pivotal role of ROS/VSOR in mediating ER stress and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes via the CHOP-Wnt pathway, and suggests the therapeutic values of VSOR Cl(-) channel blockers against ER stress-associated cardiac anomalies.