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European journal of immunology

Secretory IgA as a vaccine carrier for delivery of HIV antigen to M cells.


PMID 25412898

Abstract

HIV transmission and spread in the host are based on the survival of the virus or infected cells present in mucosal secretions, and the virus' ability to cross the epithelial barrier and access immune target cells, which leads to systemic infection. Therefore, HIV-specific immunity at mucosal sites is critical for control of infection. Although mucosal delivery would ensure the best onset of protective immunity, most candidate vaccines are administered through the parenteral route. Remarkably, secretory IgA (SIgA) interacts specifically with mucosal microfold (M) cells present in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Here we evaluate the feasibility of delivering chemically bound p24HIV antigen via SIgA into the intestinal mucosae in mice. After oral administration, p24-SIgA complexes are quickly delivered into the tissue and selectively captured by CX3CR1(+) dendritic cells. Oral immunization with p24gag linked to SIgA (p24-SIgA) adjuvanted with E. coli heat labile enterotoxin (HLT) elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses against p24 at the systemic and mucosal levels and induces efficient protection against rectal challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding gag. This is the first study which underscores the remarkable potential of SIgA to serve as a vaccine carrier for an HIV antigen in mucosal administration targeting the gastrointestinal environment.

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